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Erica Johansson is a partner in Delphi's Banking and Finance Group. She has extensive experience in advising leading financial institutions on derivatives and .
Table of contents

SBTC Skill-biased technical change. Scale economies Increasing returns to scale. Scale effect One source of gains from trade : the potential for firms and industries to become larger with trade than without, thus causing costs and prices to fall due to increasing returns to scale. Scandinavia Strictly includes only Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

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Term is sometimes used for the larger group of Nordic countries. Scarce Available in small supply; opposite of abundant. See factor abundance , factor scarcity. Scarce factor The factor in a country's endowment with which it is least well endowed, relative to other factors, compared to other countries.

May be defined by quantity or by price. Scarcity rent An economic rent that is due to something being scarce. Schedule 1. A list. See tariff schedule. A graph of a list of data; thus also a curve. See demand schedule. Schengen Agreement An agreement later, convention signed in to remove all frontier controls and permit free movement of persons between the participating countries of the Schengen Area. In it was incorporated into the European Union.


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As of August , there were 26 full participants, plus 2 others that were candidates for joining. Scientific tariff A made-to-measure tariff. Scitovszky indifference curve An indifference curve for a group of persons showing the minimum that will keep all of them at given levels of utility. A well-behaved family of such indifference curves holds utilities of all but one person constant.

These are useful in discussing the gains from trade. Due to Scitovszky SCO Shanghai Cooperation Organization Screwdriver plant A factory that only assembles a product, from parts that were produced elsewhere. Seasonal tariff A tariff that is levied at different rates at different times of the year, usually on agricultural products, being highest at the time of the domestic harvest. It attracted a large group of protesters and ended without agreement among the participating countries.

SEC United States Securities and Exchange Commission Second best Refers to choice of optimal policy when the true optimum the first best is unavailable due to constraints on policy choice.

The Theory of Second Best says that an optimal policy without such constraints e. See Lipsey and Lancaster Second best argument for protection 1. Any argument for protection that can be countered by pointing to a different and less distortionary policy that would achieve the same desired result at lower economic cost.

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Term coined by Meade b. An argument for protection to partially offset an existing distortion when the first-best policy for that purpose is unavailable. For example, if domestic production generates a positive externality and a production subsidy to internalize it is not available, then a tariff may be second-best optimal. Second theorem of welfare economics The proposition of welfare economics that any Pareto optimal allocation can be attained by a competitive general equilibrium. Second unbundling See 2nd unbundling.

Second world See third world.

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Secondary boycott See boycott. Secondary income In the current account of the balance of payments , secondary income consists of payments across borders that are not given for anything provided in return. These include especially remittances , foreign aid , and government payments to international organizations. Contrasts with primary income. Secondary sanction A sanction in which a government prohibits people and firms of third countries from doing business with a target country. Contrasts with primary sanction. Secondary sector The portion of an economy producing manufactured products , in contrast to the primary sector and the tertiary sector.

Secondary tariffs Any charges imposed on imports in addition to the statutory tariff, such as an import surcharge. Some other organizations use Director General. Section The escape clause of the U. Trade Act of Section This section of the US Trade Expansion Act of authorizes the Department of Commerce to investigate the effect of imports on national security. It must report to the President within days of initiation and may recommend action to limit imports.

Section The provision of U. It is similar to Section , except that its injury requirement is weaker, it permits safeguard tariffs against China alone, and it is available for only 12 years from China's accession. Sector A portion of the economy producing a particular category of goods or services, such as the agricultural sector, the banking sector, etc.


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Sectoral composition The relative sizes of the various sectors of an economy. Trade tends to change the sectoral composition, as export sectors expand and import competing sectors contract. Securities Stocks , bonds , and other tradable financial assets. SEDA Sustainable Economic Development Assessment SEDAC Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center Seesaw principle The seesaw principle in international tax policy states, for a country that both exports and imports capital and can alter its tax on only one, that the optimal tax on income from one is inversely related to the tax rate on the other.

Due to Slemrod et al. Segmented markets The situation in which two or more markets for the same product are separated such that buyers in one market cannot buy in the other, thus permitting each market to sustain a different price. Models of international oligopoly often assume this.

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Seigniorage The difference between what money can buy and its cost of production. Thus, seigniorage is the benefit that a government or other monetary authority gets from creating money. Internationally, if one country's money is willingly held by another, the first gets seigniorage. This is the case of a reserve currency. Selective Applied to a trade policy, this means one that affects only some countries, not all, in contrast to MFN policy. Selectivity is an important concern in the use of safeguards , which countries often would prefer to make selective but are required by GATT Article XIX to be nondiscriminatory.

Selective safeguard A safeguard action, such as a tariff or quota, that is levied unequally on imports from different countries. Not normally permitted under the WTO , but see Section Self-correcting A problem that cures itself if allowed to do so. Thus, for example, a payments imbalance can cause its own elimination through the specie flow mechanism.

Likewise, a recession will, eventually, be eliminated by the deflation that it causes. Self-fulfilling prophecy A prediction that comes true entirely because people believe it and act on that basis. Thus for example, a prediction that a pegged exchange rate will devalue can cause that to happen, if enough people hear it, believe it, and act on that basis by selling the currency.

Self-sufficiency Provision by one's self of all of one's own needs. In international trade this means either not trading at all autarky , or importing only non-necessities. Self-sufficiency argument for protection The argument for protection that a country is better off providing for its own needs than depending on imports, perhaps out of fear that war or foreign governments will interrupt imports.

It is a second-best argument , as many policies could provide for that contingency without sacrificing all the gains from trade. Sen Subunit of the Malaysian ringgit , the Indonesian rupiah , and the Japanese yen.


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Sensitive 1. In trade negotiations and agreements, countries often identify lists of particular sensitive products or sensitive sectors that they regard as especially vulnerable to import competition and that they wish to exempt from trade liberalization. A sensitive technology is one that a country does not want others to get access to, either in order to retain dominance over a market or because of its use by the military or terrorists.

Sequential game A game with multiple stages, played one after the other. Serious injury The injury requirement of the escape clause , understood to be more stringent than material injury but otherwise apparently not rigorously defined. Service 1. A product that is not embodied in a physical good and that typically effects some change in another product, person, or institution. Contrasts with good. Trade in services is the subject of the GATS. To make the scheduled payments on a debt , usually including both interest and any required amounts toward repayment of the principal. See debt service.

Service barrier Barrier to trade in a service, such as a limit on the functions of a foreign-owned service provider. Service mark Like a trademark , but for a service.